- ARTIKKELI 1.
lähde selvittää kolme molekyyliä:
TAURIINI, GLUKORONILAKTONI, KAFFEIINI
Kaffeiinin vaikutuskohta on puriiniergiset reseptorit eli adenosiiniergiset reseptorit.
Tauriini taas moduloi näitä reseptoreja.
Mainittujen kolmen aineen vaikutus mentaaliseen suorituskykyyn katsottiin tätä placebo-kontrolloidussa testissä positiiviseksi.
Amino Acids. 2000;19(3-4):635-42. A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Seidl R, Peyrl A, Nicham R, Hauser E. Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, Austria.
Caffeine- and taurine-containing drinks have been on the European market for about a decade, and research on the individual constituents of these drinks indicates an improvement in cognitive performance resulting from consumption of such drinks. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study using 10 graduate students, we obtained the P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) waveforms following an auditory oddball paradigm, measured motor reaction time, and applied the d2 test for the assessment of attention. Status of mood was assessed by the "Basler-Befindlichkeitsbogen" questionnaire, a standard test for evaluation of feelings of well-being. Measurements were made at night, prior to and starting one hour after consumption of energy drink ingredients or placebo. At the end of the experiment (midnight), P300 latency and motor reaction time were significantly longer compared with baseline measurements in the placebo group, but were unchanged in the energy drink group. In the test system for evaluating feelings of well-being, total scores, vitality scores and social extrovertedness scores were significantly decreased in the placebo group but not in the energy drink group. The findings clearly indicate that the mixture of three key ingredients of Red Bull Energy Drink used in the study (caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone) have positive effects upon human mental performance and mood. These effects may be mediated by the action of caffeine on purinergic (adenosinergic) receptors and taurine modulation of receptors. As half of the study cohort were non-caffeine users, the described effects cannot be explained in terms of the restoration of plasma caffeine levels to normal following caffeine withdrawal.
- ARTIKKELI 2
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2010 Feb;21(2):290-3. Epub 2009 Oct 29. Fast quantitative detection of cocaine in beverages using nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Hu B, Peng X, Yang S, Gu H, Chen H, Huan Y, Zhang T, Qiao X.College of Chemistry, Biology, and Material Science, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, China.
Kiinalainen tutkimus paljastaa energiajuomista funktionaalisia ingredienssejä kuten vitamiineja, tauriinia, kaffeiinia ym ja myös tulee merkkejä epäpuhtauksista kuten kokaiinin olemassaolosta eri juomissa, kuten Red Bull-, Coca-cola- ja Pepsi näytteissä. Havaitsemisraja kokaiinille oli 7- 15 fg ( femtogram). Tämä on pieni luku
1 ug = 10 000 000 000 fg
Without any sample pretreatment, effervescent beverage fluids were manually sprayed into the primary ion plume created by using a nanoelectrospray ionization source for direct ionization, and the analyte ions of interest were guided into an ion trap mass spectrometer for tandem mass analysis. Functional ingredients (e.g., vitamins, taurine, and caffeine, etc.) and spiked impurity (e.g., cocaine) in various beverages, such as Red Bull energy drink, Coco-cola, and Pepsi samples were rapidly identified within 1.5 s. The limit of detection was found to be 7-15 fg (S/N = 3) for cocaine in different samples using the characteristic fragment (m/z 150) observed in the MS(3) experiments. Typical relative standard deviation and recovery of this method were 6.9%-8.6% and 104%-108% for direct analysis of three actual samples, showing that nanoextractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is a useful technique for fast screening cocaine presence in beverages. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
1 ug = 10 000 000 000 fg
- ARTIKKELI 3
Amino Acids. 2006 Nov;31(4):471-6. Epub 2006 May 15. A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Bichler A, Swenson A, Harris MA. Biology Core Curriculum, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. Abstract
Red Bull energy drink has become extraordinarily popular amongst college students for use as a study aid. We investigated the combined effects of Red Bull's two active ingredients, caffeine and taurine, on short term memory. Studies on the effects of these two neuromodulators on memory have yielded mixed results, and their combined actions have not yet been investigated. In this double-blind study, college student subjects consumed either caffeine and taurine pills or a placebo and then completed a memory assessment. Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the testing period. The combination of caffeine and taurine had no effect on short term memory, but did cause a significant decline in heart rate and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure. The heart rate decline may have been caused by pressure-induced bradycardia that was triggered by caffeine ingestion and perhaps enhanced by the actions of taurine.
Sivun päivtys 7.5. 2013
Sivun päivtys 7.5. 2013